|Mylene Doublet O’Kane, UTC+1
MD O’Kane is an Israeli French teacher, a postgraduate in Philosophy, in History of ideas and an independent analyst in geopolitics.
|Original version : French
In tandem with the French expression “relation Françafrique” which emerged in the early 1950s to reflect the false reality shedding light on a so-called first wave of “independences”, the introduction of American “democracy” in Africa is the academic terminology which best describes the weaponization of a deceitful political regime’s ideal. In most countries, Freedom remains a disguised form of slavery objectifying a Latinized bankers-led neo-colonialism.
Its implementation has been responsible for most of the conflicts and destruction wrecking Africa today with dramatic humanitarian and immigration consequences. To switch from colonialism to neo-colonialism, to switch from open African slave trade and human capital’s slavery to a more subtle form of domination while pursuing the capture of Africa’s natural and mineral resources took one trick; a false idea of emancipation and recurrent U.S-NATO/GCC-concocted turmoil which in turn could legalize a permanent foothold on the continent. To this end, the geopolitical alliance between Anglo-French zionism (obviously not Judaism) and Saudi-Arabia-led absolutist monarchism has rendered a shrewd utilitarianism [of Sunni terror cells] the most effective part in Hybrid wars that have so far been widely successful in Africa, where the U.S. presence is confirmed in 51 countries over 54 recognized states.
To put it different, the two most significant ideologies influencing the course of events all across Africa are the US-led so-called “Global War on Terrorism” (GWOT) and China’s One Belt One Road (OBOR) global vision of New Silk Road connectivity also known as the Belt and Road initiative (BRI).
To comment on the first one, not only does it allow the U.S. and its French and U.K. allies to strengthen power in their existing spheres of influence (French and Anglospheres), but it also allows these global actors to explore and bolster new domains aiming at reinforcing the perpetuation of a hegemonic supremacist unipolar vision of the world. Opposite to this “messianic” exceptionalism, the second geopolitical driver – China’s One Belt One Road project – a network of connective infrastructure corridors currently under construction all throughout Africa – represents the 21st century-opportunity to engage in a humanitarian and Multipolar vision of the world.
To elaborate a bit further on these two factors, the French former colonist continues to control most of its former Empire through its military-economic-financial policy known as Françafrique. At the same time, it strongly denies such reality although its participation into US-led NATO organization obviously backs a policy which has conveniently provoked chaos, armed and spread Sunni terrorism in Saharan-Sahelian regions in the same fashion as it is operated in the Middle East.
Niger is considered a foothold for the Pentagon’s operation on the continent. U.S. Africa Command heralds itself as a peacekeeper in Africa where the Green Berets are said to be involved in training local forces fighting against Boko Haram extremists. The U.S. has also built a $50 million drone base in Agadez (Niger) from which the Pentagon is able to launch reconnaissance operations and attack militants in Libya, Mali and Nigeria. In parralel, Niger had already given the U.S. permission to fly surveillance drone missions out of bases in their country and Niamey and the Pentagon have come to an agreement to allow AFRICOM to add MQ-9 Reaper drones equipped with a suite of missiles on bombs to their assets. Furthermore, AFRICOM has lately added more U.S troops to the 800 soldiers already stationed in Niger. However, in the same fashion as it secretly operates in Somalia or in Afghanistan, Washington has not disclosed how many troops have been added, and questions about CIA camps and techniques have been denied for “security reasons”. Concomitantly with this “troop surge”, the rise of a new branch of Daesh: the so-called Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS) has expanded from its original base located in neighboring Mali where the French are supposed to provide an active surveillance.What is quite extraordinary, however, is the fact that this impressive military deployment of forces surprisingly points to a dramatic worsening of the security situation in western Africa where the galvanizing of Islamic militant groups such as al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Nusrat al-Islam (JNIM) in central Mali continue to gain momentum.
In the light of the foreabove mentioned observations, rational thinking combined with several factual elements obviously suggests a far more bitter reality if compared with the western messianic message of bringing peace, Democracy and progress to Africa. While the ongoing “War on Terror” provides a moral and legal justification for the US Africa Command (AFRICOM) to expand its base of operations throughout the Sahel and the troubled regions of east and central Africa, we would like to insist that in 2012 for instance, the Nigerian Tribune reported that Boko Haram received funding from different groups from Saudi Arabia and the U.K., specifically from the Al-Muntada Trust Fund, headquartered in the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia’s Islamic World Society. (Boko Haram’s funding traced to UK, S/Arabia, The Nigerian Tribune, 13 February 2012). In addition, U.N. reports also disclosed that Boko Haram members from Nigeria and Chad received training at Al-Qaeda camps in Mali in 2011 and the whole world knows by now how far the U.S “democracy” has interfered in 81 national elections, at least, not including coups as well as its infamous utilization of Al Qaeda over the past three decades.
We all keep in my mind Michelle Obama’s famous #BringBackOurGirls campaign amid the kidnapping of 300 young girls in Nigeria which in turn would conveniently call for a “moral” U.S. intervention to track down the so-called “terrorist” organization, Boko Haram. US imperialism responded quickly by sending marines to Nigeria, escalating US militarization in a country already dominated economically and politically by the West. However, the only question that rational thinkers raised at that time was : Why is the prospect of a Civil war in Nigeria, along sectarian lines, very much hoped, as we all already knew that the campaign’s use of social media and street outreach only reinforces public confusion around U.S. imperialism in Africa. Before one can be provided with a clear geopolitical knowledge amid what’s at play in Western Africa, the reader may wish to understand why he was used, abused and confused.
The combination of Nigeria’s economically dominant Christians in the South and marginalized Muslims in the North with outside forces funding Boko Haram’s deplorable campaign of violence were actually bent on exploiting tension between Nigeria’s two largest religious groups. In turn, a divided and warring Nigeria would ultimately serve the interests of the United States as cited by Zbigniew Brzezinski, National security adviser to Jimmy Carter in the 1970s, then top adviser to Barack Obama and leading U.S. foreign policy theoretician. Brzezinski, who co-founded the Trilateral Commission and openly credited himself with the creation of the Afghan Mujahideen, has influenced policy that encourages the division of existing nation-states and their substitution by the emergence of microstates, based on all cultural, ethnic and religious peculiarities. For Africa, Brzezinski recommended his ‘micro-nationalities’ concept, which means that national boundaries established in the 19th century should be swept aside in favor of a crazy quilt of petty tribal entities, “each one so small that it could not hope to resist even a medium-sized oil multinational”. So much for the Obamaniacs. Yet, Hillary Clinton has proven worse. Let’s thus get to the core of “the Grand strategy” with France being the traditional subservient.
France and her concept of “the universal man”
Since her “spontaneous” color revolution in 1789, France is best known for her triptych motto “Liberté, égalité, Fraternité”. However, behind her idea of “democracy” and her “universal” message, France is nothing more than a failed ideology. From a realistic standpoint, what’s her take in this duplicious game in west Africa?
As soon as Jan 11 2013, the country embarked on Operation Serval in Mali and then expanded it all across the Saharan-Sahelian region during the following and still ongoing Operation Barkhane commenced on August 1, 2014 which today consists of a strong French force with historical permanent foothold and headquarters in N’Djamena, the capital of Chad and which the U.S. is also participating in. The operation has been designed with five countries and former French colonies. How convenient a consequencialist strategy indeed, when the U.S.-NATO-GCC-concocted coup againt Colonel Muammar Gadaffi in Lybia was precisely aimed at spreading armed Sunni terrorism all across the above-mentioned region. British Empire’s motto “Divide and rule” and its French equivalent through King Louis XIV’s own words “Diviser pour mieux régner” have hardly ever been as wonderfully well applied as to the so-called Libyan “Color revolution” .
Libya : the impossible African dream?
To put it simple while elaborating on the economic-financial context, it is noteworthy to mention that Libyan Colonel Gaddafi wanted to empower Africa in an attempt to set it free from Western neo-colonialism. His initiative included the creation a new African Union based upon a new African economic system. He had the ambition to introduce the ‘Gold Dinar’ as backing for African currencies, so they could break free from the U.S. dollar dominated western monetary system that kept and keeps usurping Africa. As a first step, he offered this lucrative and very beneficial alternative to other Muslim African states, but leaving it open for any other African countries to join. One of the 3,000 Hillary Clinton emails released by the State Department has revealed evidence that the U.S. plot to overthrow Gaddafi was fueled by two goals the first of which was the urgent need to quash the gold-backed African currency, and the second was obviously the take over on the Libyan oil reserves.The email of reference was sent to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton by her unofficial adviser Sydney Blumenthal titled “France’s client and Qaddafi’s gold”.
The email identifies the then French President Nicolas Sarkozy [as the gullible NATO local puppet] leading the attack on Libya with five specific purposes in mind: to obtain Libyan oil, ensure French influence in the region, increase Sarkozy’s reputation domestically, assert French military power, and to prevent Gaddafi’s influence in what is considered “Francophone Africa.”
here is the section of the email proving that NATO had ulterior motives for destroying Libya (The link has since been killed, but here is the web cache). Second update: see https://wikileaks.org/clinton-emails/emailid/6528
In 2010, French president Sarkozy incorporated France into NATO’s integrated command. It is noteworthy to remind that at no time were the French citizens consulted prior to a move that General Charles De Gaulle would have considered as a crime of high treason vis-à-vis the French nation. This preparatory measure could have, however, in itself signaled that an unorthodox plan was being under way at NATO’s headquarters. A year later, at the time when the controversial French zionist philosopher, Bernard Henry Lévy, was giving an international biased voice to the so-called ‘Color revolution’ which conveniently ‘legitimized’ Britain and France joint military intervention aiming at provoking Gaddafi’s atrocious murdering on 20 October 2011 – Libya’s gold reserves were estimated at close to 150 tons, and about the same amount of silver. The estimated value at that time was US$ 7billion. It’s your guess who may have stolen this enormous treasure from the people of Libya. As of this date, it is nowhere to be found.
An additional core reason for Gaddafi’s elimination was that he wanted to detach his oil sales from the dollar ( i.e. no longer trading hydrocarbons in US dollars), as was the US/ OPEC imposed rule since the early 1970s (see Nixon’s measures, although this individual and his Neoconservative friend, Senator Mac Cain, should have been trialed for war crimes in Vietnam). Other African and Middle Eastern oil and gas producers would have followed. In fact, Iran had already in 2007, a plan to introduce the Tehran Oil Bourse, where anyone could trade hydrocarbons in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. That idea came to a sudden halt, when George. W. Bush started accusing Iran of “planning to build a nuclear bomb” which was naturally another fabricated lie confirmed by the 16 most prominent U.S. security agencies and later also by the U.N. body for nuclear safety – the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna. A similar narrative is currently pushed by President Trump and Israeli PM Netanyahu with the same counterproductive effect. Facts are stubborn. The reality of that time objectifies that Washington needed a pretext to stop the Tehran Oil Bourse which would have decimated the need for dollars, and thereby most probably would have meant the end of the dollar hegemony. Saddam Hussein (Iraq) had the same idea. He promised as soon as the murderous and criminal embargo imposed by the U.N. – of course dictated by the White House – would end in 2000 that he would sell Iraqi oil in euros. He was killed. Gaddafi’s new plan for Africa would have meant an entirely new banking system for Africa, away from the now western central banks dominated African currencies. Here again, it could have meant the collapse of the US dollar -or at least an enormous blow to the dollar based western monetary system. Gadaffi was killed and Libya’s provoked chaos paved the way for US-NATO’s higher range of Hybrid wars using Sunni terror groups as an easy relocable tool running all across the Middle East and beyond. The European readership should be informed that the U.S geographical conceptualization of the Middle East stretches from Northwestern Africa/sub-sahelian regions as far as Southwestern Asian Afghanistan and even Pakistan. A higher level of comprehension signals that the planned domino-effect and further balkanizations of Iraq (2003), Libya (2011) and Syria (2011) according to Brzezinski’s Grand Chessboard Strategy were always aimed to fan the flames of chaos in the Middle East which, in turn, would make it possible to spread the forces of destabilization across all of Eurasia. This was the theorical level which is today in the making. In taking a closer look at the present geographical situation while wondering about the core reason behind a surprising military U.S-NATO’s “ground forces surge” in Afghanistan announced earlier in 2017 by Washington, any sensible mind could acknowledge that the conflict in Syria – far beyond gas and oil considerations – as Syria’s hydrocarbons are only 2.5 billion barrels of proven reserves which is 0.1% of the global reserves – was in fact fundamentally dedicated to spreading the contagion of DAESH (former IS/ISIL/ISIS) into the Russian Caucasus (through a direct corridor that passes through Turkey) as well as into China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and home of a large Chinese Muslim community. By that logic, it was therefore smart, though absolutely irresponsible, to support a so-called “Syrian Democratic force” (SDF) and pro-independent Kurds (YPG) whose role was always a smokescreen hiding U.S-NATO/GCC-led funneling of the terrorist chaos.
Back to Africa, the new regional force set up by Paris, the Sahel G5—comprising Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Chad—carried out its first operation, code-named Haw Bi (“Black Cow”) from October 27 to November 11, 2017 in the border region between Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger. The G5 force operated in coordination with French troops and the MINUSMA, the 12,000-strong UN peacekeeping force in Mali. It carried out patrols aimed at ethnic Tuareg or Islamist fighters hostile to Paris and the Malian central government in Bamako.
FULL-OUT WAR AGAINST CHINA
Useful tool 1: A U.S PUPPET DOUBLE AGENT TRYING TO SEDUCE RUSSIA ; CHINA’S ALLY
PRESIDENT MACRON : THE MESSIANIC MESSENGER FOR AFRICA ?
Since his election in May 2017, French President Emmanuel Macron has actively pushed to intensify the war launched by his predecessor, François Hollande, amid growing geostrategic tensions between Europe, the United States, and China. On July 2, Macron attended a summit of the G5 states in Bamako. The summit formally inaugurated that new force, which ‘officially’ includes some 5,000 troops in total furnished by the countries of the alliance. During his speech, Macron confirmed that “France shall not leave Africa and shall redeploy its 4,000 troops fighting in Operation Barkhane, despite the launching of the G5 force, adding that “France would remain engaged in Mali as long as it takes to carry out a struggle against terrorism”.
“I came to Bamako today and went to Gao last month to show you that France will remain engaged as long as it takes,” Macron said in a speech before the French community in Bamako. “Thanks to our engagement, we aim in the long term to accompany and support the national and regional forces,” he insisted.
Although France is confronted with budgetary challenges, Macron has announced material and logistical aid from France worth €8 million by the end of the year amid G5 estimates that its operating costs will run to €423 million in the first year alone. For its part, the European Union (E.U) has promised €50 million, and each G5 member country has committed to contributing €10 million. At the same time, France has agreed to a U.S plan to spend $10 billions in upgrading 150 cold war-era nuclear bombs stationed in Europe and to increase her military spending up to 2% of her GPD despite the facts that the Soviet Union is dead and buried, that Russia is no longer a communist “Red scare” threat and while NATO’s Very High readiness joint task force (VJTF) in Europe is only – above the ultimate ridicule of its name – but a caracterized provocative sum of military maneuvers at Russia’s borders.
In the final analysis, the imperialist capitals plan to put the costs of this neo-colonial expansion on the backs of the French workers and retirees—which Macron made clear by calling for multi-billion defense spending increases while eliminating the special tax on large fortunes. Austerity and slashing cuts to social spending aim to boost financing for wars like the G5 operation in Africa. At the same time, Macron is demanding that the G5 countries, which were already among the poorest in the world even before being devastated by the wars during this decade, to provide large quantities of cannon fodder.The claim that these sacrifices in lives and treasures are necessary in a struggle against “terrorism” is an ignominious political lie.
As mentioned earlier, the crisis in the Sahel flows from the bloody war for regime change that NATO waged against Libya in 2011 and relies directly on Islamist militias as its ground boots. After the fall of the Libyan regime, Tuareg forces that had fought inside the Libyan army returned to northern Mali and backed local Tuareg fighters, including the National Movement for Liberation of the Azawad (MNLA) against the Malian army. This provoked a major crisis in Bamako, where a coup toppled President Amadou Toumani Touré in March 2012. Initially, Paris tried to remove the military junta of Captain Amadou Sanogo, which it forced to hand over power to an interim government. But Paris eventually decided to back the Sanogo junta when it launched its own war in Mali in January 2013—which it naturally presented as a “total war to protect democracy from the Islamist peril”. As an overall analysis, the French war in Mali since 2013 has aimed neither to fight terrorism nor to create democracy in Mali. Rather, amid increasingly sharp and aggressive international rivalries, the Elysée Palace is currently concocting major new wars in Africa to protect its imperialist interests, including its control of the region’s vast uranium mines that fuel France’s 58 nuclear plants.
Under such circumstances, what room is left for China’s humanitarian project in Africa?
Five main ongoing or already completed projects are worth mentioning :
- the Djibouti-Addis Ababa railway;
- the LAPSSET Corridor Program which is Eastern Africa’s largest and most ambitious infrastructure project bringing together Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan. This mega project consists of seven key infrastructure projects starting with a new 32 Berth port at Lamu (Kenya); Interregional Highways from Lamu to Isiolo, Isiolo to Juba (South Sudan), Isiolo to Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), and Lamu to Garsen (Kenya), Crude Oil Pipeline from Lamu to Isiolo, Isiolo to Juba; Product Oil Pipeline from Lamu to Isiolo, Isiolo to Addis Ababa; Interregional Standard Gauge Railway lines from Lamu to Isiolo, Isiolo to Juba, Isiolo to Addis Ababa, and Nairobi to Isiolo; 3 International Airports: one each at Lamu, Isiolo, and Lake Turkana; 3 Resort Cities: one each at Lamu, Isiolo and Lake Turkana; and The multipurpose High Grand Falls Dam along the Tana River;
- the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya;
- the TAZARA in Tanzania;
- the Central Corridor Trade route which connects the Port of Dar es Salaam by road, rail and inland waterways to Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda and Eastern part of the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) and all of central and northern-western Tanzania itself. The corridor forms part of the backbone of the regional transportation system in East and Eastern Central Africa carrying the import and export of the five countries with a population of more 120 million people. Specifically the transit routes and facilities of the Central Corridor, as defined by the Agreement, cover cargo and passenger transport utilizing all Tanzanian roads connecting to Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda together with all roads and railway systems in these landlocked countries connecting to the central corridor. To be a bit more exhaustive on the subject, the framework includes the Port of Dar es Salaam, the Deep sea and coastal shipping services calling at Dar es Salaam port, the Railway system operated by Tanzania Railways Corporation, Isaka Dry Port, the freight & Marine services provided by Uganda Railways Corporation and Marine Services Company Limited respectively and other private companies on Lake Victoria, the Port of Mwanza, Kemondo Bay, the Port Bell and Jinja Port, the marine services provided by Marine Services Company Limited and other public and private Companies on Lake Tanganyika, the Port of Kigoma, Kidatu inland trans-shipment terminal; and additional secondary Transit Routes and Facilities.
A quick comment here may be necessary. Considering Israeli Prime Minister’s highly controversional recent decision to deport 30.000 African refugees potentially back to Rwanda and Uganda, one may wonder how much expected hindrance it will add to China’s humanitarian project whose benefits for participating countries are immense.
In addition to this bold infrastucture scheme, several railway lines are currently under construction such as a coast to coast railway line which shall eventually link Eastern Africa to its western coast , hence Asia to West Africa by an alternative route to a maritime access and China also tries to expand some of these projects across the Sahelian-Saharan space, the Congo and Angola to pioneer multiple transcontinental economic corridors.
As for prospective projects, from North to South, these are:
- Saharan-Sahelian Silk Road
- CCS (Cameroon-Chad-Sudan) CorridorNigerian Silk Roads
- Cross-Congo Intermodal Corridor
- Benguela Railway/Northwest Corridor to Angola
- Walvis Bay Corridor
- Tripartite Free Trade Area Corridor (South Africa to Sudan, following the African Renaissance Pipeline between Mozambique and South Africa with added interconnectors between existing projects up north)
However, one must not be in delusion.
The US-led War on Terrorism – which externally provokes identity conflicts, disrupt, control, or/and influence transnational connective infrastructure projects – is aimed to cynically sabotage China’s New Silk Roads in Africa.
To briefly comment on the situation in DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo), various covert CIA Psy-ops have been supplying brutal regime after brutal regime in the region – where over four million civilians have already died and a majority were left in dire poverty and famine- from the moment when NASA satellite studies discovered that Congo has 80% of the world’s coltan, among many other vital resources. Without coltan, one cannot have any technology that requires a computer chip: computers, cell phones, satellites and naturally, weapon systems.
What future can we envision for US-UK French-controlled western African nations ?
To put it different, How crucial is the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) ; the largest population of any African country at over 175 million people, in Latinized bankers’ supremacist scenario to counter China-led multipolar and humanitarian vision of the world?
A STRIKING INITIAL PARADOX
Although Nigeria combines the potential of an exceptional domestic market with large oil and gas reserves, the Nigerians live in severe poverty. The Western disseminated ideology would like to persuade their respective citizenries and the international community that extensive history of internal division and bloodshed, combined with a sudden emergence of Sunni Islamic groups are to blame. However, no ideology could be further from the truth. Against the dismissive and condescending “Latinized” western attitude the latest deplorable example of which was French President Macron’s speech before African students at University of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) on last 29 Nov 2017, honest analysts intend to set the record straight. Although Gadaffi is dead and infamously buried, practical solutions aiming at African emancipation and development for its own benefits, are still alive.
The Economic Integration of ECOWAS
The “Eco” vs. the West African Franc (Franc CFA, for the French readership):
The Federal Republic of Nigeria is located in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and has a total area of 924,000 km2. It shares a 4,047 kilometers border with Benin, Niger, Chad, Cameroon, and has a coastline of 853 km. Nigeria is one of the biggest producers of petroleum in the world and also possesses the largest natural gas reserves in the continent. Please, note that the #OnePlanetSummit but more seriously international geological studies objectify a sustainable ecologic transition with a giant boost in trade of natural gas in the near future. China (1st importing nation of oil and natural gas in the world) has already engaged her own ecologic transition. In this respect, Beijing has given a priority to Russian natural gas vs LNG (Liquefied natural gas) whose importing costs are prohibitive.
If China is smart, and this old and wise innovative civilization definitely falls into this category, the country should do anything it takes in order to boost and build a strong Russia. This remark is not antithetical, thus does not necessary mean that China cannot help other nations like Nigeria where the capital-intensive oil sector provides 20% of gross domestic product, 95 % of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65 per cent of budgetary revenues. Natural gas reserves are well over 5 trillion m³ and are several times as substantial as the crude oil reserves. Apart from oil and gas, the Federal Republic of Nigeria also has a wide array of natural resources which include coal, bauxite, gold, tin, iron ore, limestone, niobium, lead and zinc. Nigerian economy has well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange) which is the second largest in Africa. Accordingly, it is safe to say that Nigeria represents the geostrategic center of gravity for the West African Core Region (WACR) which includes Benin, Niger, Chad and Cameroon.
In this respect, Nigeria has the potential capability to one day tie together the Anglophone and Francophone countries of the region; an initiative which would hence interconnect West Africa with Central Africa in the future; should Latinized neocolonialist-led interference be stopped at some point. As of today, Nigeria has already secured its leadership position within the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS). This organization does precisely brings together the Anglophone and Francophone countries of West Africa into an integrational format focused on economic cooperation and regional security, though financially divided into the mostly Anglophone West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) and the mostly Francophone West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA). The UEMOA are somehow forced to use the West African Franc (CFA), while the WAMZ has yet to roll out a single currency. Meanwhile, one has to understand that the constituent parts of ECOWAS did have future plans for creating a new currency called the “Eco“.
What about the Eco?
Although the details are scarce, we can report that this monetary unit might not be able to enter into circulation at its expected 2020 date, not least because it was ‘officially’ abandoned in 2014 under the influence of Latinized bankers’ strong hold on global financial tools (the control over the total amount of circulating money in the world which in turn determines FED’s interest rates, then all Central Banks’ interest rates ; thus inflation and unemployment rates within each economy in the world as it may become more difficult for real economy-linked businesses to contracts loans). Contrary to the deceiving narrative that “a new unnamed currency may be created at any time, should African leaders decide so”, as Macron shamelessly reminded his audience during the above-mentioned speech, anything possible is attempted to never let such occurrence come true. Decades of interference including recurring meddling in foreign national elections with nominations of US-NATO/CIA-led puppet leaders and local cliques speak for themselves. Nevertheless, the “Eco” holds out the promise of deepening ECOWAS integration and standardizing the economies of the region. The predicted challenges, however, are immense and might prove to be insurmountable without the proper amount of political will from all sides and the enactment of multilateral concessions. The greatest mistrust or, at least, suspicion comes from the role that France shall play/ plays over the “Eco”, as the Paris-controlled CFA is the current official currency of over half of ‘ECOWAS’ members, and as it would be unrealistic to expect France to cede its hegemonic neo-imperial influence over the region. In this context, one can figure out how formidable a “led-from behind” terrorist weapon is, combined with the recourse to the “change regime” policy and/or perpetual escalations of tensions along sectarian lines and religious divisions.
The most likely outcome shall probably be that the CFA is rebranded as the “Eco” and that the WAMZ states are either gradually integrated into adopting it, or are economically pined for resisting and sticking with Nigeria in the hopes of attaining true financial independence some day, which is precisely the reason why the original “Eco” was abandoned in the first place. Therefore, ECOWAS’ economic-financial future shall more likely come down to a battle between France and resilient Nigerian effort in gathering the above-mentioned state members to bravely and collectively walk out of a neo-imperialist currency which still heavily embodies an infamous colonist white supremacist tragic past and present order.
However, a closer look at the situation poses the following equation. Is it truly a hard battle between Nigeria and France or more significantly, are we describing the greater level of confrontation which opposes France to China?
The battle : Nigeria vs. France, or China vs. France?
From a realistic standpoint, Nigeria is plainly in no position to compete with France on any of these levels, particularly in the face of U.S.-NATO/GCC-led Hybrid war games, let alone at the present moment of the article. Consequently, it falls to China to strench a helping hand in building the West African state up to the point where it is strong enough to confidently face the old French Empire and the Western private interests it protects in the back-scene. Until then, Beijing can maneuver between the CFA UEMOA and the disjointed currencies of the WAMZ, but the truth is that it would be ideal for all players if ECOWAS could economically interface with China and the rest of the world through a single currency as opposed to several. China, nevertheless, would rather prefer to retain the existing system than the option of witnessing the CFA rebrand itself as the “Eco” and for France to de-facto take over the whole bloc ; a move which would in turn essentially make all of China’s trading interactions with West Africa dramatically dependent on France to varying degrees and domains.
Besides, would France succeed in “uniting to rule” over ECOWAS with a CFA-rebranded “Eco”, then the next obvious “conqueror” level would be for the “former” colonist to expand Operation Barkhane ; an initiative which would incorporate the whole regional bloc of nations and quietly turn ECOWAS into a massive ‘Lead From Behind’ proxy organization for the sole benefit of Paris’ hyper-dominance on West Africa. Would Nigeria protest against such deceiving plan, then Paris has all the means at its disposal to isolate the country and engage into an economic and/or political blackmail. To use a historical analogy, a large swath of Africa could be swiftly turned into what the West has done to Eastern Europe and Balkans in the aftermath of U.S.-NATO-concocted breakup of the Soviet Union, when these regions were quickly developed into backwater economies with a frightening new list of powerless young women being encouraged to prostitute themselves for wealthy western players and while Soviet-era strong industrial sector was being dismantled and sold in slices to western private interests ; one highly performing machine after another. Obviously, neither does China want this tragedy to repeat nor does it ambition to abandon once again, all the gains to 1% destructive supremacist latinized elite.
Macron ; the new European Napoleon?
One the one hand and although increasingly fractured by internal dissensions notably amid Muslim immigration concerns within its space, should the European Union want to continue to play a substantial role between the United States and China, it would need to acquire more labor and consumer markets, one way or another. Indeed, in exploiting both the anti-Russian narrative in Europe arguably “justifying” NATO’s legitimacy on the old continent and the fact that the U.S has become drastically dependent on Poland since the Warsaw’s military alliance was signed between the two countries earlier last year, Poland can now blackmail the European Union on many issues and quite inevitably on fair repartition of majority-Muslim immigration quotas. However, the role that a CFA-dominated West Africa could play, especially if the WAMZ countries were tricked into falling for the French ruse and Paris-based currency being rebranded as the “Eco” could also fall in line with the European Union’s necessity of growing its internal consumer market. This is where “messianic” President Macron believes that he could “make France great again in Europe”. On the other hand, one cannot deny that China also needs new labor and consumer markets to assure its own continued growth, which is the core purpose for pressing forward with OBOR and the construction of New Silk Roads all across the world. At the same time, neither the EU nor China wants their respective markets to fall under the influence of the other, which hence determines France (the EU’s avanced-post or ground boots in West Africa) up against China in a proxy competition for the region with China having no choice but to outsource its future leadership in the area to Nigeria, though with the risky challenge being that Africa’s most populous country and its second-largest economy can effectively succeed in getting on its own two feet first and then go carrying out the collective multipolar will afterwards. However, hardly any foreign power would prove as detrimental and destructive as a collapsing Latinized hegemon.
Launch of China’s petro-Yuan vs a collapsing US Dollar : a step forward the Grand humanitarian bond?
In this context, the launch of China’s Gold-backed petro-Yuan planned on march 2018 – which is a huge move against a collapsing U.S. Dollar’s hegemony – may seriously challenge existing balance of power between China and France [and by extension the EU and US-NATO]. Indeed, from the second quarter of 2016 forward, most latinized private bankers (ie RIT Capital Partners) started selling their assets in dollars (over 50%) giving a preference to the Sterling or/and Gold while declaring that “quantitative easing (QE)-a speculation-oriented capitalist tool- might have come to an end. [The period of monetary accommodation may well be coming to an end]. At that time, hardly anyone paid attention to this strong signal that private investors were preparing for a plausible U.S. dollar collapse whose support only comes from full-out wars worldwide (AngloZionist Militiray industrial complex/ stronghold on all international institutions, NGOs. ect.) and were anticipating the creation of the biggest energy market in the world in the Middle East, once nation-state nationalism (the shiite crescent) is hopefully wiped out. In this respect, the ongoing plan scrupulously follows Brzezinski’s logics of weak regional ‘micro-nationalities’ with soils/maritime exclusive economic zones (EEZ) rich in hydrocarbons. The ultimate strategy for 1% happy few latinized elites does remain the “balkanizations” of Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and a successful take over on resisting nationalist countries like Iran (via a direct military attack, a coup, a “color revolution” , financial/economic sanctions, terrorism etc.) as best hybrid war weapons, with for the mentioned region, the convenient creation of independent Kurdistan and Iran/Pakistan-region of Baluchistan.
Baluchistan covers about 240,000 square miles with a coastline stretching nearly 1000 miles from the Strait of Hormuz to Karachi in Pakistan. It occupies one of the most strategic locations in the world, linking the Middle East, Southwestern Asia, Central Asia, and Southestern Asia.Iranian/Pakistani Baluchistan also holds large reserves of natural resources including silver, uranium, aluminum, and oil, gas, gold, copper, and platinum. As the competition for the last natural resources is intensifying between the major economic and military powers, Baluchistan is a rare strategic pearl. In addition, it can serve as a major hub for trade, energy, transportation, and communication links among the countries of these regions. Baluchistan is the most viable economic route for overland roads, railways, and pipelines from Central Asia, China, and Afghanistan to the Arabian Sea and from the Middle East and South Asia to China and Central Asia. If connected, the landlocked Afghanistan and energy-rich Central Asian countries shall gain access to international markets for their energy exports. In this respect, it is fundamental that Iran, Pakistan and India understand where their mutual interests are, as the US-NATO/GCC coalition shall try to funnel terrorism and play on historical tensions inheritated from the perverse ticking bomb left by the colonial British Empire (Durand line [Afghanistan-Pakistan], Jammu-Kashmere [Pakistan-India], Doklam Plateau [India-China] etc). Baluchistan is a pearl. They shall try to make it an apple of discord. At all costs, Iranian-Baluchistan Chabahar Port [Iran-India] and Pakistani-Baluchistan Gwadar port under China-Pakistan-Economic-Corridor should not be detrimental to each other but a collective force for the all region and beyond. As unbelievable as it may seem, but more probably than not under the positive diplomatic Russian influence, the Taliban have recently called for a peace process in Afghanistan. Naturally, the U.S is expected to turn a blind eye, as peace is absolutely not in Latinized interests. However, a Greek philosopher once said :” Freedom is knowing what not to fear” – Plato. The only fear and evil should be blown from the West and the South, as Saudi Arabia’s ideological influence on the region has proven bloodly demonic over the past three decades in the region. Then resistance and ultimate freedom shall come from the north. In more than one way, whether we refer to Africa, the Middle East or Southwestern Asia, the cynical attempt to condemn China to US-supervised control of the Malacca strait for its energy imports or trading routes coldy points to China as the number one “enemy” for the current global order. But in more than one way, a new Gold-backed currency (petroYuan) could represent for Nigeria and the whole world minus 1%, the way forward to human salvation.
BEYOND THE ULTIMATE OPPOSITION BETWEEN A COLLAPSING LEADING POWER AND THE CHALLENGING POWER
Of course, it would be a narrow-minded vision to describe Africa as being divided into East and West; between China and the US. The reality objectifies that the US and China’s interests are cross-continental. As widely commented above, there is also room for few other players involved who happen, like France and more generally the E.U to focus on certain niches. The EU is mostly active in North and West Africa, where they claim to be involved in “anti-terrorist” activities while improving the economic situation in migrant-originating states.
Turkey is another actor which is rarely discussed but relatively influent in Africa. Ankara chooses to concentrate mostly in sub-Saharan Muslim countries after having lost out on its desired post-“Arab Spring” influence in North Africa. Of particular interest is the fact that Turkey has a military base in Somalia from which it might ambition to promote its “Islamic Democracy” soft power model across the region. Last december, a contract with his Sudanese homologue amid the restoration of the ancient Red Sea Suakin port which was Sudan’s major harbor when it was ruled by the Ottoman Empire but, over the last century, went out of operation after Port Sudan had been constructed 35 miles (60 km) to the north was the subject of a contract aimed to restore and enhance tourist attraction and a transit point for pilgrims traveling to Mecca. This smart move could in turn earn him enormous goodwill among the majority-Muslim coastal merchants and thus shape a more friendly business environment for Turkish entrepreneurs.
U.S-occupied Japan since 1945 whose Yen currency is used by the U.S. to secure its assets on the Asian markets has a discreet presence all throughout the African continent. Meanwhile, a new US-led challenging Indo-Japanese project (AAGA) to China‘s OBOR and which India is also participating in might give Japan a greater role in Africa in the foreseeable future. Honest analysts are reluctant to concede that to compete with China would be a positive move for Japan, considering a painful historical mutual relation between the two countries with a plausible escalation of tensions in the Pacific region. Of course, Japan may hide behind the South Asian giant, India, which is China’s rival all across the Indian Ocean Region, and it accordingly is most active along the East African coast, notably in Kenya and Tanzania, although it’s also a major purchaser of energy resources from Nigeria. The recent development on the Indian Ocean front and the background dynamics objectify a quite eruptive factor, as India’s American-backed anti-Chinese “containment” strategy is looking forward to having New Delhi establish control over crucial nodes along the Sea Lines Of Communication (SLOC) in the Afro-Indian Ocean.
However, China’s excellent analytical understanding of the situation has already developed an asymetrical counter-strategy as it has perfectly analyzed the terms of a New Cold War raging with India all across Greater South Asia. The recent civilian unrest and govermnent-led crack down on manipulated gangs as part of a failed American/Indian-led coup talked volumes about familiar techniques of Hybrid War with the quiet hope that New Delhi might militarily intervene in the “foreign” provoked crisis and prompt an even tenser strategic standoff with China. The dynamics of the 21st century geopolitics of the Multipolar World Order are such that India is now used by the U.S. against China in the New Cold War in the exact same way as China was turned against the Soviet Union in the original and never-ended Cold War by Washington. It is quite concerning that India’s current leadership has accepted to play such self-detrimental part for its own population as a whole, as if it had learned very little, if any lesson, from the British Empire’s rules and ruses to subjugate the Eastern Hemisphere to its sole hegemonic benefit. To comment briefly on what Washington and Tel-Aviv have mischievously recommended to India with the purpose of turning it into a naval pro- Atlanticist power [as opposed to China’s continental Eurasiatic power] aimed to not only “contain” but ultimetly bring China into another century of submission, the balance of power describes as follow :
- Andaman and Nicobar Islands naval base (supported by Japan)
- South Korean Sea
- Singapore,(especially the Charjee Base) naval base
- Access right to Vietnamese ports and certain military facilities such as the construction of a satellite tracking center (Vietnam)
- Diego Garcia naval and air base, British Indian Ocean Territory (via LEMOA with the US- Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement )
- an interception station linked to similar ones in Kochi and Mumbai (Madagascar)
- Assumption Island naval and air base, Seychelles
On January 29, 2018, India established an agreement with the Seychelles authorities on the construction of military infrastructure (pier for warships and a runway for large aircraft, but without nuclear weapons on their sides) on Assumption Island also including Radar installations on all 26 Maldives atolls associated with Indian radar systems.
- Agalega air and port facilities, Mauritius
- Trincomalee port, Sri Lanka
- Madagascar radar and listening post
- Duqm naval base, Oman
- Chabahar port, Iran
As for China, these are its facilities in the Indian Ocean:
- Kyaukphyu port, Myanmar
- Malé air and port facilities, Maldives
- Hambantota port, Sri Lanka
- Djiboutian military base (Djibouti-Addis Ababa railway)
- Lamu Port, Kenya (LAPSSET)
- Bagamoyo, Tanzania (Central Corridor)
- Gwadar Port, Pakistan (CPEC)
In the context of a war scenario in the Indian Ocean, several plausible triangles are aimed to squeeze China but as mentioned earlier, various counter-strategies objectify a particular Chinese cleverness. Quite interestingly enough, in late January 2018, French president Macron was reported to be finalizing a document with India -which shall most probably become official in early March during his visit to Dehli – on military logistics giving to Navy ships of “the Republic” an open access to French bases all across the world and especially in the Indian Ocean.
Macron once boasted of being a humanistic “philosopher” and campaigned for a multilateral vision of the world. Then his acts just do not match and prove he is on the wrong side of humanism, rather pushing for the perpetuation of colonial imperialism. Indeed, one could argue that the young French leader is being realistic, in the Machiavellian sense of the term. One could thus suggest that he is doing what it does for France’s sake; “to make France great again”. However, a ‘consequencialistic’ attitude imposing to the French society ultraliberal economic measures (the dismantle of a strong public system including in strategic arenas) – the same by the way that have wrecked the U.S. – as well as a raise in military spendings and the abrogation of tax on speculation capital are neither aimed to reach the universal good (égalité) nor peace (fraternité), even less freedom (liberté) ; rather the exact opposite, not to mention that a great part in his #oneplanetsummit serves as an ecologic weapon to contain China and Russia, notably in the Arctic region although Russia is strongly engaged in the preservation of the Arctic through the Arctic summit format.
Note : The hegemonic supremacist vision of the world/ also known as a New world order (New?) or as a “messianic” exceptionalism (upon which a shrewd Macron did not campaign, rather the contrary) translates the deceitful idea of a “planetary Republic”, as opposed to an “Evil Ghost Empire” . As part of the Anglozionist soft power, its promotion worldwide has been personified throught Hollywood “Star wars”” saga. But contrary to “a peaceful inclusive Resistance”, the true resistance against a 1% Anglozionist elite and its clique is actually best embodied by “the Ghost Empire’s side”. From this undertanding, the real resistance truly becomes the most powerful humanistic multinational in the world.
Prior to this future France-India agreement and a few months after a similar one was concluded between Washington and Delhi in April 2017, India received an equivalent proposal from Australia, which even presented a draft of a future document and has an accumulated long-term experience of implementing such agreement with the United States. It is allegedly believed that Beijing having opened a first full-scale overseas base in Djibouti in August 2017, it intends to create the same military facilities through the guise of its OBOR’s network of “Silk Roads”, which in turn would make China not only a mainland superpower on several continents but also a global maritime one in the same fashion as the U.S. is via its NATO subservient arsenal. For instance, it was lately disseminated through the western mainstream media that the modernized port of Gwadar (under the CPEC- China-Pakistan Economic Corridor) could easily be transformed into a military base. (Read my last article “A new passage to India”). If it is necessary to clearly differenciate full-scaled military bases and regional strong points, once cannot miss to acknowledge an Anglozionist-led purpose for escalating tensions between India and China along lines of regional influence and historical lines. A striking example of their rivalry is particularly wishable in the Gulf of Oman around modernized ports of Chahbahar (India) and Gwadar (China). Accordingly, it is particularly crucial to disseminate the fear of an alleged military expansion of China. Earlier this year, western mainstream media voiced the news that Beijing was comploting with newly demonized Pakistan amid the construction of a second foreign base in Jiwani on the border with Iran, which is 85 km from Gwadar. This belongs to what is called Anglozionist-owned infowar system or Weapon of Mass Information (WMI-1) in the same way as they use Weapons of mass immigration (WMI-4) which conveniently destabilize countries of origins, transiting countries and countries of final destinations as well as their respective economies and societies. Though the most frightening in apparence, armed, trained and relocated terrorism at will is not the only weapon available in Hybrid wars with asymetric arsenals. However, my choice for Gwadar’s port exemple not only confirms the raging “race for bases” in the Indo-oceanic area, but quite amusingly the apparent attempt by the Chinese military to copy the well-known Pentagon strategy “Pax Americana” on alleged grounds to protect Free trade, global stability and maritime routes / strategic lines of communication (SLOCs).
Back to Africa, Russia’s strategic footholds in Africa are comparatively behind most of its competitors. However, a combination of historical links, substantial energy, mining, and military relations with several sub-Saharan states such as South Africa, Angola, and to an extent Nigeria where China and India are into energy competition, and North Africa are not to be undermined. Egypt has so far been successful in following a multi-alignment foreign policy but a return of terrorism in the context of Lybia’s civil war with the US, France and the UK playing more games while lamenting on migrants behing bars points to a large window of uncertainties. In Algeria, who will follow aging president Bouteflika might drag the country back in possible civil unrest that Paris may play to its advantage. There is also a worst-case scenario that a second immigration crisis crashes into Europe. Who ever knows ? Lastly, it is noteworthy to mention that turmoil might escalate the quiet, yet unsolved, Western Saharan conflict. Libya’s unrest, and the return of terrorism to Egypt.
As an overall, Western Africa is constantly put under a high risk of destabilization due to several factors a number of which are exacerbed by US-led Hybrid war techniques (multitude of fragile states, terrorism armed non-state actors such as the Tuaregs, South American drug cartels, and local rebel forces and arm trades etc).
In Central Africa’s region, a series elements suggest that the effects of US-NATO-led Hybrid war focus on pushing the Democratic Republic of the Congo into more all-out wreckage, which could conveniently damage China’s cross-continental New Silk Road connectivity prospects and therefore settle an artificial limit to structural multipolarity in Africa.
In contrast, China‘s deep engagement in East Africa and most notably in giant Ethiopia, tries to identify and curb the sources of conflict and vulnerabilities with the exception of South Sudan. However, considering India’s role and growing influence in the Indian Ocean, a fierce economic competition between India and China may emerge in the near future. The concerning case of Somalia which is devastated since the early 1980s is a typical example of Anglozionist supremacist imperialism as the country occupies the entire coast of the Horn of Africa washed by the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea. The northern part of Somalia is the Gulf of Aden coast through which the route passes from the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea and further through the Suez Canal to Europe is eminently strategic and considered one of the most critical transport corridors on the globe, along which runs practically all sea traffic between Europe and Asia. Many other routes connecting Asian and African countries pass around the Horn of Africa.
Sadly, the same scenario is repeated. In November 2017, the U.N. Expert Group on Somalia published a report, which mentioned the increased activity of ISIS in the country. The terrorist group which was controlled and financed by the ISIS leadership in Iraq and Syria was also active in the territory of Somalia with its local size surprinsingly increasing significantly over the past year. In early November 2017, right before the aforementioned report of the UN, U.S. military forces launched an “anti-terrorist campaign” in Somalia. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) conducted a series of missile attacks on several ISIS facilities on the territory of Somalia. According to the American commanders, “the operation was successful and caused serious damage to the terrorists.” Meanwhile, it is very concerning that these reccurring false good news are never accompanied by information about coherent and comprehensive plans to change the social and economic situation and to strengthen legitimacy in Somalia. It is even more concerning to have to consider a staggering number of reports suggesting that CIA-camps enrol teenagers, sometimes children as local jihadists.
It would be only redundant to explain the core reasons why Somalia endures such treatment.
As for the last part of Africa, the southern region, an external standpoint may suggest an harmonious and stable space. Yet, the reality may prove otherwise.
To illustrate my point, Zimbabwe (former Rhodesia) appears the perfect example
Vast mineral reserves explain the political/economic situation
Zimbabwe is one of Africa’s richest lands with some of the world’s most valuable mineral deposits.The country is extraordinarly rich in untapped minerals including copper, platinum, gold, diamonds and iron ore. Only five countries in the world, for instance, produce platinum, a rare metal used among other places in catalytic converters for vehicles. The leading producers are South Africa and Russia. Zimbabwe is number five. Total platinum reserves in Zimbabwe are estimated at 2.8 billion tons. In addition, Zimbabwe has vast chromite deposits( estimes are around 930 million tons).The largest user of chromite ore today is China. Zimbabwe’s Great Dyke formation alongside the Bushveld Complex (South Africa) hold most of the world’s known chromite; the only ore of chromium suitable for making stainless steel, nichrome and superalloys used in jet engines which therefore makes it a strategic metal and… one the USA produces none of. Last but not least, Zimbabwe holds the world’s largest diamond mine, mainly for industrial diamonds. Marange is currently ranked the largest diamond producing deposit on earth ranging over 300 square miles in Chiadzwa. In 2014 it produced 13% of world diamond supply.
The political level
Since 1998, the former British colonial Empire, the U.S., the E.U among others, have imposed sanctions on the government of the Zimbabwe African National Union, Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) led by President Robert Mugabe. In 2000, for a series of complex reasons, Mugabe approved radical land reforms that encouraged veterans from the fight for liberation to occupy some 4,000 white-owned commercial farms. At the very least, 12 white farmers were murdered. Most fled only to be replaced by inexperienced black farmers. The agriculture-based economy went into freefall. Before 2000, farming accounted for 40% of all exports. By 2010 it had dropped to just 3%. GDP and hyperinflation was caused by central bank printed money in a failed attempt to keep the economy afloat.The economic weapon (sanctions) was continued under the administration of President Bill Clinton, through the entire two terms of the Bush White House and punitive measures against the ZANU-PF ruling party were even intensified, as soon as President Obama took office in January 2009. Both Britain and the U.S. attempted to persuade the Republic of South Africa (under former President Thabo Mbeki) to impose a blockade on Zimbabwe, while Britain drew up plans for an evacuation of its settler population holding United Kingdom (UK) passports. Meanwhile, thanks to the assistance of successive African National Congress (ANC) governments, the support of the regional Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the support from People’s Republic of China, the country has been able to remain relatively afloat. At the same time, Robert Mugabe who, after a military coup was forced to step down on November 24th 2017, ruled the country with an iron-fist for 37 years but more significantly, history shall remind that decades of US/UK economic sanctions have soured their chances, leaving China in a particulary confortable position.Naturally, Washington/London-joint effort shall try to resist notably via their Anglozionist upper hand on the IMF (International Monetary Fund), the World bank [see Bank of International Settlements] and CIA/DNC/Neocons-tied “private democracy-promoting” NGO, National Endowment for Democracy (NED). However, the stakes become high, with the USA and former colonial masters UK with the IMF and its “reforms” on the one hand, and China on the other.In December, 2015, clearly realizing it was about to be excluded from Zimbabwe by the US and UK using their financiary weapon (IMF), Beijing prepared a $5 billion aid package independent of any IMF murderous “conditions”. In July 2016 Zimbabwe’s Macro-Economic Planning and Investment minister ObertMpofu and Agriculture, Mechanization and Irrigation Development minister Joseph Made settled a deal with China, giving Zimbabwe $4 billion to improve agriculture productivity and $1 billion for urban low-cost housing as well as US$46 million for the construction of a new parliament building outside Harare. However, by 2017 a total freeze in China-Mugabe relations – mostly due to economic desperation from intensified western sanctions- forced the latter to order the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe the seizing of 80% of Zimbabwe platinum and chrome export earnings in a desperate attempt to restock dollar reserves. After Mugabe fired his Vice President, now his successor, Emmerson Mnangagwa first fled to South Africa in exile and from there eventually went to Beijing for talks. The visit was organized by the influential head of the Association of War Veterans, Chris Mutsvangwa, former Zimbabwe Ambassador in Beijing.It is worth mentioning that Emmerson Mmnangagwa was an active Marxist member of the anti-British XANU liberation army during the 1960s who also studied at the Chinese Communist Party’s Beijing School of Ideology. At this point, it is prematured to have a clear vision of how he intends to rule Zimbabwe. However, in his inaugural speech, he mentioned a “compensation for disposed white farmers and a will to rejoin with the world community”. These are typical markers of a third way. Not Communism. Not economically ultraliberal globalism but rather a strong state with state-owned strategic sectors. If China, Russia and South Africa – all members of the BRICS group which founded the BRICS Development Bank – are potentially able to offer Zimbabwe investment for needed mining infrastructure as well as an alternative currency to the U.S. dollar, then Zimbabwe, alongside many other African countries are on the way towards not only a reunification with the world community but with Africa’s inner essence and meaning ; the cradle of mankind. Since 2014, Russia has also entered commercial negotiations with Zimbabwe, and neighboring South Africa is Zimbabwe’s largest trading partner. Quite interestingly and lastly, it is necessary to take into account the developing of extensive military and technical ties between India and Mozambique, as it reinforces the new dimension of India-China confrontation. One question remains : Does India truly understand the necessity of playing collective in an effort to win a multipolar world? At this point, we could hardly believe that it is just about the slogan : “Indian Ocean should be Indian”.
©Mylene Doublet O’Kane, 22 Feb 2018.
This is basically against whom, the Resistance (The people of the world + Russia/China/Iran/Syrian/North Korea/…) are fighting.
MD O’Kane is an Israeli French teacher, a postgraduate in Philosophy, in History of ideas and an independent analyst in geopolitics.
Republishing of this article is welcomed with reference to TCO. The views of the author do not necessarily coincide with the opinion of the editorial board.